The City of Tver is justly called one of the most ancient Russian cities. Already in the first third of the ХII century a fortress appeared in the mouth of the Tvertsa River. It was destined to become a prototype of Tver. In 1246, Tver became the capital of the Tver Principality.
By the end of the ХIII – beginning of the ХIV centuries, it was already a big handicraft and trading center. The city started developing especially fast at the end of the ХIХ century: manufactories were built and new plants were opened there.
By the beginning of XX century, in 1926, Tver became a city with developed diversified industry.
At present, Tver is a big administrative, industrial and cultural center of the Upper Volga area and the center of Tver Region.
According to archive data, a settlement on the cape at the influx of the Tmaka River into the Volga River existed already in the ninth and tenth centuries. In the non-chronicle sources Tver is mentioned for the first time between 1127 and 1135 and in 1160. In the chronicles Tver was mentioned for the first time in 1208-1209. The birch bark manuscripts found on September 26 of 1983 and on August 23 of 1985 on the territory of the Kremlin of Tver are dated by the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century.
In the second half of the 12th century, Tver was a small fortress on the western border of the Suzdal Principality and in the first third of the 13th century it was a part of the Pereyaslavl Principality.
In 1238, the city was devastated by the Mongol-Tatars but it recovered from the destruction quickly. The Voskresenskaya Chronicle (the chronicle named after the Resurrection Monastery) said that restoration of Tver after the devastation by Batu Khan was supervised by Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. Around 1247, Tver was given to Prince Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky as a domain, between 1252 and 1255 it went to his brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (founder of the dynasty of Tver princes). In 1247, Tver became the capital city of the Tver Principality. The Kremlin of Tver was the historic core of ancient Tver.
Geographic location of Tver on an important trade route that connected Novgorod with Northeastern Rus and relative remoteness from the Horde contributed to inflow of population from other Russian lands to the region. The city was growing quickly. In 1265, Tver became a center of a diocese. Even devastating fires of 1276 and 1282 typical for the wooden ancient Russian cities could not hinder growth of the city. First of all, growth of the city is explained by changing of the political role of Tver. In 1264, Prince of Tver Yaroslav became Great Prince of Vladimir but he kept living in Tver.
Composition of chronicles and stone construction was restarted in Tver during the rule of Yaroslav's successor Mikhail Yaroslavich for the first time in Rus after a 50-year break. Stone three-dome Dormitory Church in Otroch Monastery (Monastery of the Fathers, 1269) and Savior Transfiguration Cathedral were built there. Suburbs populated mostly by craftsmen were growing together with the Kremlin. Growth of the might of Tver was confirmed by the fact that in 1293 Mongol-Tatar war chief Dyuden did not dare to storm the city. Transition of the throne of the Great Prince of Vladimir Mikhail Yaroslavich Tverskoy in 1305 confirmed that by that time Tver became the capital of the most powerful principality in Northeastern Rus. The princes of Tver struggled against the Horde and for the throne of the Great Prince of Vladimir and were reinforcing the city diligently.
At the end of the 13th century and in the first third of the 14th century Tver was the biggest center of the national liberation struggle of the Russian people against the Horde yoke. The anti-horde policy of the princes of Tver contributed to growth of the political authority of Tver. Residents of Tver were among the first people who revolted and started an armed struggle against the Horde: in 1317, they defeated the troops or Tatar war chief Kavdygay and Prince of Moscow Yury in a battle near Bartenevo village. The stone church of Fedor was built in the mouth of the Tmaka River between 1323 and 1325. In 1320, Princess Anna achieved marriage of her senior son Dmitry and Maria Gedeminovna, daughter of the Great Duke of Lithuania. Relations of Tver with Lithuania were established since that time and they were not stopped until 1485.
A powerful anti-Horde rebellion started in Tver in 1327. With assistance of Prince of Moscow Ivan Kalita it was suppressed cruelly and Tver was looted. This devastation became the beginning of the decline of political influence of Tver. Prominent masterpieces of the ancient Russian literature "Novel about Mikhail Yaroslavich Tverskoy" of Hegumen Alexander, "Panegyric to Prince of Tver Boris Alexandrovich" of monk Foma, "Novel about Mikhail Alexandrovich" etc were created in Tver. An original artistic school was formed in Tver: the city developed architecture, icon paining, book copying ("Chronicle of Georgy Amartol"), jewelry production and decorative applied art (boar spear of Boris Alexandrovich) and Tver minted its own coins. Merchants from Tver traded in Smolensk, Kiev, Vitebsk, Dorogobuzh, Vyazma, Polotsk, Vilna etc. There was a Tatar shopping arcade on the territory of the Zatmatsky suburb. Crafts in Tver reached a high level, especially processing of metals (in the 14th locks made in Tver were sold in Czechia).
In a situation of unstopping struggle against Moscow in the 14th century the princes of Tver kept reinforcing the city. A moat was dug and an earth wall was arranged from the Volga River to the Tmaka River in 1372 (in 1375, Prince of Moscow Dmitry Ivanovich with a big army failed to seize Tver). Big-scale construction work was done in Tver in 1387, 1395, 1413 and 1446-47 (as a rule, it was connected with aggravation of the political situation and a threat on the part of Moscow). According to presumption of historian V. S. Borzakovsky, the stone Vladimir tower of the Kremlin of Tver was built in the 15th century; Soviet historian of architecture N. N. Voronin believed that in the 15th century the Kremlin of Tver had wooden walls and stone towers. In general, the city was filled with wooden buildings and suffered fires frequently: half a city burnt in 1318, 100 households burnt in 1405, the Kremlin, the prince's palace and 20 churches burnt in 1413, 120 households burnt in 1420. According to a hypothesis of E. A. Rikman, at the beginning of the 15th century Tver occupied the same territory that it occupied in the 13th century. The news about casting of bells in Tver belongs to the beginning of the 15th century, the news about casting of guns belongs to 1408 (famous gun master M. Krechetnikov worked in Tver in the middle of the 15th century).
Being an active opponent of the Horde since the end of the 13th century, Tver was exposed to frequent blows of Mongol-Tatars and Moscow until the second half of the 15th century. In this struggle Tver was gradually losing the leading position among the other principalities in Northeastern Rus. The role of unifier of the Russian lands went to Moscow. The hard struggle undermined the forces of Tver but even in the 14th and 15th centuries it remained a big trading, craft and cultural center and one of the most developed Russian cities.
Decline of Tver Principality
During the rule of Boris Alexandrovich in the first half of the 15th century Tver experienced the last rise of its power as a center of independent principality. Big-scale construction was started then. A stone prince's palace, the second in time after the Bogolyubsky in Northeastern Rus, a stone cathedral belfry (1407) and stone churches of John the Merciful (1420), Boris and Gleb (1438) and Michael - Archangel (1455) were built in the Kremlin; stone temples were built in Fedorovsky and Zheltikov monasteries. The economic rise of the city was accompanied with vast economic relations and diplomatic activeness (journey of A. Nikitin, participation of Ambassador of Tver Foma in the Council of Florence).
In 1485, Moscow troops occupied Tver and Prince Mikhail Borisovich fled to Lithuania. The Tver Principality ended the independent political existence and entered the Russian centralized state being formed at that time. Between 1485 and 1490, Tver was a domain of Ivan Ivanovich, son of Ivan III. Afterwards, governors of the Great Prince started governing the city.
At the end of the 15th – 16th centuries, Tver remained a big trading and craft center and significant stone construction was done in the city (the Church of Trinity over the Tmaka River, the so-called "White Trinity" survived). In December of 1569, Tver was looted by the oprichnik (life-guardsmen) troops of Ivan IV the Terrible that were marching to Novgorod. In the period of social, economic and political crisis experienced by the Russian state at the beginning of the 17th century Tver was exposed to attacks of the Polish-Lithuanian invaders. In 1606, residents of Tver parried the attack but in 1609 the invaders managed to seize Tver. In the same year Prince M. V. Skopin-Shuisky moving with the troops from Novgorod to Moscow drove the occupants out of Tver. As a result of the Polish-Lithuanian "devastation" Tver grew desolate.
Bearing in mind the importance of the strategic position of the city on the route from Moscow to Novgorod, the government of Czar Mikhail Fedorovich appointed D. P. Pozharsky-Lopata on the post of the voivoda in Tver. In a short period of time he managed to restore the fortifications destroyed during the "turmoil." In the middle of the 17th century, Tver mostly recovered from consequences of the Polish-Lithuanian intervention. The archbishop yard ensemble was built in the Kremlin and stone Vladimir tower was erected (1674, it was located opposite to the contemporary House of Officers) and a shopping arcade with stalls was built on the square in front of it, the cathedral of the city was rebuilt in 1696. The smith craft was developed in Tver further. The Streletskaya and Yamskaya settlements were arranged on the territory of the Zagorodsky suburb.
Tver in the Middle Ages
Since the beginning of the Northern War of 1700 – 1721, procurement of the Russian army was done through Tver. Due to a threat of breakthrough of the enemy armies deep into Russia in 1707 Peter I ordered L. Magnitsky to fortify Tver: the worn out walls of the Kremlin were demolished and wood and earth bastions were built on their place (about 4,500 people were occupied with this work). After the foundation of St. Petersburg and relocation of the capital of the Russian state to it the role of Tver as a transshipment point at the intersection of the St. Petersburg road with the Volga River grew dramatically (construction of the Vyshny Volochek water system that connected the Volga River with the Baltic Sea contributed to this too). In 1708, Tver was included into the newly formed Ingermanland Governorate (since 1710, St. Petersburg Governorate), in 1719 it became a center of Tver Province within St. Petersburg Governorate (in 1727, it was attributed to Novgorod Governorate).
The first and the only big chemical enterprise of merchant D. Tomilin appeared and worked in Tver between 1719 and 1746. This was the Tver manufactory for production of turpentine, rosin and colophony. In 1760, merchant Svetogorov built a leather and rope manufactory. Horse-cab driving and maintenance of ships in the water route to St. Petersburg grew widespread in Tver. The Digit School (the first educational institution) was opened in Tver in 1716, a school for education of children of the clergy that was transformed into the Tver seminary later was opened in 1722.
In the first half of the 18th century, the look of the city did not change very much. The buildings remained mostly wooden and only churches were made of stone (the Assumption Cathedral of the Otroch Monastery and churches of Resurrection (Three Confessors), Trinity over the Volga River, Nativity in Rybaky (Boris and Gleb Church) survived, as well as some state buildings and houses of the wealthiest residents of the city (Arefyev's house). The fire of May 12 of 1763 actually destroyed the city (852 households, almost all state buildings, the shopping arcade, the shopping stalls were burnt and many churched were damaged). Bearing in mind the importance of Tver as a point on the St. Petersburg-Moscow road, the government of Catherine II took emergency measures for restoration of the city. Architect P. R. Nikitin was sent to Tver to compose a new development plan. The project composed under his supervision was approved in autumn of 1763 and restoration work began in October of 1763. A special "architect team" supervised the course of work. Construction was done mostly on the territory of the Kremlin and Zagorodskoy suburb: the Traveling Palace was built (architects P. R. Nikitin and M. F. Kazakov), ensembles of the Octagonal Square (Lenina Square now) was created, as well as the Stepana Razina Embankment, the Voznesenskaya Street (Sovetskaya now) and other central streets were developed.
In 1773, a new fire eliminated almost the entire Zavolzhskaya part of the city and hence new plans for development of Zavolzhye (the part of the city over the Volga River) and Zatverechye (the part of the city over the Tvertsa River) were worked out and approved and such plans were approved for Zatmachye (the part of the city over the Tmaka River) in 1777. Construction of the 1760s-1770s changed the look of Tver completely: the city received regular layout, the streets were filled with stone buildings located as "united façade." Construction in Tver was the first experience of reconstruction of a big provincial center of Russia. A three-beam composition of the plan of the city was created under supervision of P. R. Nikitin (it survived as a city-building monument of the epoch of classicism).
In 1775, Tver became the center of newly established Tver Vicarious Authority (since 1796, Tver Governorate). In 1776, a small (two-class) school was opened in Tver and the main (four-class) school, two poorhouses for disabled and elderly and a governorate hospital for 40 beds were opened in 1777 (all these institutions were subordinated to the governorate department of public assistance). By the end of the 18th century, there were up to 70 small semi-handicraft enterprises in Tver (spinning, canvas, leather, candle, butter and wax, groats etc).
Between 1809 and 1812, Tver was the center of the newly formed Tver, Yaroslavl and Novgorod Governorate General and Traveling Palace became the residence of Governor General Prince G. F. Oldenburgsky. The committee for improvement of municipal services of Tver was formed in 1809. K. I. Rossi participated in its work between 1809 and 1815. Streets and squares in the central part of the city were paved. The buildings of Rossi influenced formation of the look of the city (Nativity Cathedral, dwelling houses: Stepana Razina Embankment, 35, Novotorzhskaya Street, 73, Radishcheva Boulevard, 41/30 etc).
After beginning of the Patriotic War of 1812 the committee of Tver military force was established in Tver and people's militia was formed. Development of Tver in the second quarter of the 19th century was done under supervision of architect I. F. Lvov. Some secular and religious buildings were built according to his projects (including the Ascension Church, house of the Gentlemen's Assembly).
A. S. Pushkin passed through Tver frequently between 1820 and 1830 (the Galyani hotel where the poet stayed survived). Many writers lived in Tver in the 19th century: F. N. Glinka (between 1830 and 1835 and between 1862 and 1880), I. I. Lazhechnikov (between 1831 and 1853), A. N. Ostrovsky (in 1856), F. M. Dostoevsky (in 1859), M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (between 1860 and 1862), A. I. Ertel (between 1886 and 1889) etc. Publication of Tverskie Gubernskie Vedomosti newspaper began in 1839. The men's classic gymnasium was opened in Tver in 1804, the Tver Marian women's gymnasium was opened in 1856, the district junker school was opened between 1864 and 1865, the Tver women's teacher school was opened in 1870 and the Tver non-classic state secondary school was opened in 1875.
The cultural life of the city grew noticeably more active in the second half of the 19th century: the public library (now the library named after Gorky) was opened in 1860, the museum (now the Tver untied historic architectural and literature museum) was opened in 1866. The first congress of country doctors of Russia took place in Tver in 1871, the Tver gubernatorial academic archive commission, one of the first in Russia, was founded in 1884. At the end of the 1850s and at the beginning of the 1860s, Tver became one of the centers of liberal movement and A. M. Unkovsky (marshal of nobility of Tver Governorate between 1857 and 1859) was the leader of the noble opposition of Tver. The Tver committee on arrangement and improvement of living conditions of landlord peasants was opened in 1858. Emperor Alexander II spoke to members of the committee and tried to persuade the nobility of Tver to be compliant in the matter of liberation of peasants. An extraordinary congress of nobility of Tver Governorate that had repercussions all over Russia took place in Tver in 1862. The congress voiced a broad program of liberal transformations. The written statement of 13 representatives of the congress (including N. A. and A. A. Bakunin etc) was viewed as "a call for criminal actions." All 13 people were arrested and put into the Peter and Paul Fortress.
The governorate land assembly, the district court and justice courts were opened in Tver in the course of the reforms of the 1860s-1870s, the new city Duma (parliament) was established in 1870 and the mayor became its head. The administrative board of the city was the executive body of the Duma. Growth of the industry of Tver began since the middle of the 19th century. Traffic was started through the Nikolaevskaya Railway that connected Tver with St. Petersburg and Moscow in 1851. In 1853, V. fon Glazenap received a permit for establishment of steamship company Samolet in the Volga River in Tver. The first passenger steamships in the Volga River Tver, Rybinsk and Yaroslavl, were built in the mouth of the Tmaka River already next year. They circulated between Tver and Yaroslavl.
In 1853, merchant from Moscow N. I. Kaulin laid down the Rozhdestvenskaya manufactory in Tver, the first enterprise of the capitalist type in the city (the Tver spinning and weaving factory named after A. P. Vagzhanov). On May 1 of 1859, Emperor Alexander II approved the articles of association of Partnership of Tver Manufactory of Paper Products (the birthday of contemporary Tver Manufactory). Very soon, biggest factory owners of Russia Morozovs became owners of Tver Manufactory, having bought up all the shares. The weaving factory of Zalogin – Perevolotskaya manufactory located 2 kilometers from Tver appeared in 1860. A mechanical plant for production of parts for textile machines was built in 1873, some sawmills were built in the 1870s and a big steam mill of Konyaev brothers was built in 1879. On April 11 of 1897, the Emperor approved the articles of association of the French plant in Tver (now the Tver carriage works) and in December of 1898 the plant started production of railway carriages. More than 17,500 people (including 15,000 textile workers) were working at the factories of Tver at the end of the 19th century.
In 1866, city mayor A. F. Golovinsky surrounded the entire low Zatmatskaya part of the city with an earth wall at his own expense and guarded the local residents from annual high water floods. The following buildings were built in Tver in the last quarter of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century: buildings of educational institutions (seminary, 1876, now it is one of the buildings of the Tver Suvorov school; Tver women's teacher school of Maximovich, 1889 and 1909, now these are buildings of the Tver State University; Diocese women's school, 1900, now this is the children's regional hospital; Karpovskoe school, 1902, now the Krylov Street, 18; women's commercial school, 1905, now this is secondary school No. 6 etc), hotels, religious buildings (railway station cathedral of Alexander Nevsky, 1893, it did not survive; the Vladimirskaya dragoon church, 1890s, now Zarya club; mosque, 1906; synagogue, 1913, now the Pushkinskaya Street, 22; Resurrection cathedral, 1913, now this is a functioning; five-dome chapel in the Stantsionnoe Highway, now the Prospekt Chaikovskogo, 1913, etc), barracks for workers and houses for white collars of the Morozovskaya and Rozhdestvenskaya manufactories, 1886 - 1915; people's theater of Partnership of Tver Manufactory, 1900; post office, 1913; bank, 1914 etc. The first telephones were installed in Tver in 1893 and until 1897 they served only the police, the first automobile appeared in the streets in 1895, an intercity telephone station was built in 1898, a bridge over the Volga River built according to the Herbert system (the Old Volga Bridge) was opened in 1900, the electric tram was launched in 1901 and illumination of streets by electricity was started, a cinema theater was opened in Tver in 1905, an airplane flew to Tver for the first time in 1910, in 1916 M. A. Bonch-Bruevich made the first Russian radio lamp in Tver.
In 1902, exiled revolutionaries established the Tver committee of Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDRP) that tried to head the workers' movement in the city. The first political anti-war demonstration took place in Tver in 1904. On the day of announcement of the Manifest of October 17, 1905, on granting of freedom of speech, press, meetings and unions in Tver the Black-Hundreders devastated the country council. Elections of the Tver council of workers' deputies were organized during the General October Political Strike of October 20-23 of 1905. Political strike of workers of the Morozovskaya manufactory took place between December 12 and 17 of 1905.
Terrorist acts on the part of various political parties grew more frequent in Tver: Governor P. A. Sleptsov was killed on March 25 of 1906, General A. A. Ignatyev (father of contemporary Lieutenant General, author of the book entitled "50 years in rank") was killed on December 9 of 1916, Governor Bunting was killed on March 2 of 1917, General Chekhovskikh was killed on March 16 of 1917.
World War I began on July 15 (28) of 1914. The Russian-Baltic railway carriage plant was evacuated to rearward Tver from Riga first and the aviation park was evacuated afterwards (since August of 1917, this was the First Tver aviation park that existed in the city until 1926). The Tver equipment works that produced military products was put into operation in December of 1915. The Tver radio station was mounted on the Zheltikovo field. Emperor Nicolas II arrived to Tver with an inspection on August 21 of 1915, two days before taking of the post of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief. On March 2 (15) of 1917, Nicholas II abdicated and power in the country went to the Provisional Government. A demonstration took place in Tver on the same day, at the factory of Morozov armed workers and soldiers arrested director F. T. Markov, the Zavolzhskaya prison was destroyed, the provisional executive council of public organizations was elected and was accommodated in the Traveling Palace. Cherven-Vodali from the Constitutional Democratic Party was elected the commissar of the governorate. The revolutionary committee consisting of seven Bolsheviks and two leftist Social Revolutionaries was elected in Tver on October 28 (November 10). Commissars with detachments of the Red Guard and soldiers seized the railway station, telegraph and telephone stations and military radio station. The provisional executive committee was liquidated on December 2(14), the Duma of the city was disbanded, Tverskaya Mysl newspaper of the Constitutional Democratic Party was closed according to resolution of the Tver committee of RSDRP(b). Merger of the councils of workers', soldiers' and peasants' deputies took place in the Traveling Palace on December 4(16) of 1917. A. P. Vagzhanov was elected the chair of the united council. A circular letter about organization of the soviet power on the local level was disseminated with his signature on December 31 of 1917 (January 13 of 1918).
Accelerated command courses were established in Tver in February of 1918 on the basis of the Tver cavalry school (a junker school until 1910). Soon, the courses were reorganized into a cavalry school named after L. D. Trotsky and in August of 1922 they were reorganized into the school named after the III International (Kalinin Cavalry School). The first group of red commanders was released already in December of 1918. During the civil war years the Teachers' Institute in Tver was renamed into the Pedagogical one (Kalinin Pedagogical Institute), the medical and agricultural technical schools were opened (1920), Proletkult (Proletarian Cultural Enlightenment Organization) was established and the society for studying of Tver Region was organized in autumn of 1920, Tver No. 1 theater of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic was established on March 21 of 1921. The first issue of Nashe Khozyaistvo magazine was published in Tver on April 15 of 1921. The following mass media were published in Tver during the restoration period: newspapers Tverskaya Pravda and Tverskaya Derevnya, magazines Vestnik Kommunizma, Sputnik Kommunizma, Nashe Khozyaistvo, Pakhar, Tverskhoy Kray and Ekho Tverskoy Kooperatsii. Simultaneously with this, in 1919 began mass renaming of streets, squares and embankments and organized struggle against the church and the church culture that constituted an indispensable part of the Russian national culture. Relics of St. Prince Mikhail Right-Believing that had been stored for 600 years and relics of St. Arseny Miracle-Worker that had been stored for 500 years were opened in May of 1919 for propaganda purposes. On May 20 of 1922, Tverskaya Pravda reported about confiscation of valuables from 35 churches and four monasteries of Tver (more than 205 puds (one pud equals 16 kilograms) of silver, more than five pounds of gold and 434 diamonds). Closing of monasteries and churches began. The railway carriage plant, Ursul and K. M. Meshchersky and Morozovskaya manufactory were nationalized in Tver in June of 1918.
During the civil war years Tver experienced economics difficulties. The railway carriage plant was stopped on January 1 of 1921, the Perevolotskaya, Rozhdestvenskaya and Morozovskaya manufactories etc were stopped later (they restarted their work only after the end of the civil war and the railway carriage plant restarted its work in 1926). The movement of udarniks (record setters) and subbotniks (voluntary Saturday work) grew widespread at the factories of Tver in the second half of the 20th century. In 1929, textile workers of Tver initiated signing of the "Agreement of thousands." In 1930, a new campaign of struggle against the church separated from the state began in Tver. Almost all belfries were demolished in Tver due to the will of the municipal authorities (1755, architect D. V. Ukhtomsky), as well as tens of churches being monuments of the Russian architecture of the 17th-19th centuries. The Savior Transfiguration Cathedral was blown up in the night of April 4 of 1935.
In 1929, Tver Governorate was liquidated and Tver became the center of an area first and the center of a district within Moscow Region afterwards. On November 20 of 1931, Tver was renamed into Kalinin in honor of M. I. Kalinin who signed the decree about the renaming. Kalinin Region with the center in Kalinin was established in 1935. The regional philharmonic society and a musical school (1936), the regional picture gallery (1937) were opened in the new regional center and a number of original buildings were built in the center of the city: academy on the Stepana Razina Embankment (1935), cinema theater Zvezda (1937), Riverboat Station. There began development of new Kalinina and Chaikovskogo prospekts and Vagzhanova Street.
Great Trials Time
The Great Patriotic War began on June 22 of 1941. Situation was bad in the Moscow direction already in October of 1941. A gap with width of up to 800 kilometers appeared in the defense of our troops in the Kalinin operational direction. The German fascist command sent the third tank group and significant forces of the ninth army to this gap. On October 14, the enemy seized Kalinin. The crew of Sergeant Yepancha made a feat on that day in the afternoon. It managed to stop the movement of the German tanks on the Tvertsa Bridge. A Soviet tank T-34 broke through into Kalinin occupied by Germans (its crew consisted of S. Kh. Gorobets, F. I. Litovchenko, G. V. Kolomiets and I. I. Pastushin), it passed through the whole city fighting and came to the positions of the Soviet troops in the area of Vlasyevo village.
The Kalininsky Front was established on October 17 (its commander was General I. S. Konev). A counter-offensive of the Red Army near Moscow began on December 5-6 of 1941. On December 16, Kalinin was fully liberated by troops of the 31st army (commander Major General V. A. Yushkevich) and 29th army (commander Major General V. I. Shvedov since December 11). Between December 5 and 16, troops of the Kalinin Front killed more than 7,100 soldiers and officers of the enemy, 11 tanks, 220 automobiles, 61 guns, 55 mortars etc.
The victory at Kalinin cost dearly: more than 20,000 servicemen of the Red Army died. In the city fascists destroyed 7,714 buildings and 510,300 square meters of housing, which accounted for 56% of the housing fund. More than 70 factories of the city were put out of order. Until March 3 of 1943, the day of liberation of Rzhev, Kalinin was exposed to systematic raids of the German aviation. Fighter pilot Ye. I. Pichugin died in the sky above Kalinin in an air battle after a ram attack at a fascist airplane on March 19 of 1942 (he received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union postmortem).
The city went out of the frontline zone and there began a difficult time of restoration work that was superseded with the rise of industrial construction.
On November 1 of 1945, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR issued a resolution on the measures for restoration of 15 cities of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic destroyed by the fascist invaders including Kalinin. In the next 10-15 years, the city received a number of buildings built in the so-called Soviet classicism style: Drama Theater (1951), House of Culture in the Gagarin Square (1953), library named after M. Gorky, building of the polytechnic institute in the Prospekt Lenina (1954) etc. Among the best buildings built in 1950 was the block of apartments at the corner of the Volnogo Novgoroda Street and Tverskoy Prospekt (with Optika store). A similar composition method was used in the architecture of the neighboring house near Zvezda cinema theater. A new bridge over the Volga River was built in the center of the city in 1953 (the arch constructions of the Nikolaevsky Bridge over the Neva River in St. Petersburg built between 1843 and 1850 were used during its construction).
Industrial methods of the follow-up construction of houses according to typical projects allocated a secondary role to the architectural decor of the buildings. Simultaneously, there continued destruction of ancient buildings, especially the religious ones: the shopping arcade in the Krestyanskaya Square (architect K. I. Rossi) was demolished in 1960, the church of Philip Apostle (1774) and the German Protestant church (1840, architect, K. I. Geidenreikh), the temple of Alexander Nevsky (1983) etc were demolished too. The following monuments were erected in Tver: to Afanasy Nikitin (1955), I. A. Krylov (1959), A. S. Pushkin (1972, 1974), M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (1976), V. I. Lenin (1925, 1959, 1980 etc), M. I. Kalinin (1955, 1956 etc); multi-figure bronze compositions Friendship dedicated to the festival of youth and students (1957) and "Agreement of thousands" (1982) dedicated to the events of 1929; the Victory Obelisk (1970) etc. The Tver plant of electric equipment was put into operation in 1947, TETS-4 (combined heat and power plant) was built in 1949. In the same year the excavator plant mastered production of excavators on automotive chassis, the first facilities of the factory of chemical fibers (Khimvolokno) and the plant of silicate bricks (Tver Factory of Construction Materials No. 2) were put into operation in 1950, the Tver printing and publishing integrated works were built in 1956, the Tver silk-weaving factory was established in 1957, Iskozh factory was established in 1962 on the basis of the plant of substitutes of upper leather and KREPZ (1938) built in the same year. The Tver worsted integrated works were built in 1963, a big meat-processing plant and a pharmaceutical factory were built in 1965, the first part of the Tver plant of glass plastic and glass fiber was built in 1966. TETS-3 was built in 1973. Research and production association Tsentrprogrammsistem was established in 1974 (since 1989, it has been joint Russian-German venture Tsentron), Tsentrosvar plant was built in 1974. By the beginning of the 1990s, there were about 80 industrial enterprises of 28 industries in Tver.
Tver is an important transport node. Tver port was established in 1961 at the deepwater part of the Upper Volga. The circular highway with a bridge over the Volga River was opened in 1961. It connected the highways to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Rzhev, Volokolamsk and Turginovo. Asphalt-concrete roads were built from Tver to Bezhetsk and Kimry. Supply of natural gas to Kalinin was started in 1962 through the Stavropol-Serpukhov-Leningrad gas pipeline. In the same year Kalinin was connected to the United Energy System of the European part of the USSR after construction of 220-330 kV power transmission lines, the through electric train started circulating between Moscow and Kalinin in the same year.
There are five higher educational institutions in Tver: Tver State University (established in 1971), Tver Polytechnic Institute (1958, now it is the Tver Technical University), Tver State Medical Institute (1954, now it is the Tver Medical Academy), Tver Agricultural Institute (1972, Tver Agricultural Academy), Military Academy of Air Defense named after G. K. Zhukov (1956); some research institutes including the All-Union Research Institute of Synthetic Fibers (VNIISV), All-Union Research Institute of Geophysical Methods of Research, Tests and Control Over Oil and Gas Exploration Wells (VNIIGIK, 1982 ) etc, 11 secondary special educational institutions, Suvorov military school (1943), 14 vocational technical schools, 48 secondary schools etc.
Among the cultural institutions are: Tver Drama Theater (1921), Youth Theater (1959), Tver Puppet Theater (1944, special building - 1975), regional philharmonic society (1936) in which an organ was installed in 1991, Tver State Circus (1971), 12 cinema theaters (including Vulkan, Zvezda, Rossiya, Mir etc), eight palaces of culture etc. Tver is a big museum center: the Tver state united historic, architectural and literature museum was established in 1977 on the basis of the regional local history museum, the Tver daily life museum was opened in 1970, the museum of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin was opened in 1976, the museum of the history of healthcare of Tver Governorate and Tver Region was opened in 1969 etc. In 1987, the Tver regional picture gallery received an additional exhibition hall.
The Kalinin repeater television center was put into operation in 1955, regular programs of Tver television began on March 14 of 1989. The following newspapers are published in Tver: Tverskaya Zhizn (until July 24 of 1990 – Kalininskaya Pravda), Tverskie Vedomosti (since September 1 of 1990), city newspaper Veche Tver (since October 3 of 1990) etc. There are the following regional divisions of creative organizations in Tver: Union of Writers of the Russian Federation, Union of Artists of the Russian Federation, Union of Architects of the Russian Federation, Union of Journalists of the Russian Federation, Theater Union of the Russian Federation etc. In 1987, the public of Kalinin advocated return of the historic name to the city. Initial group "Vozvrashchenie" was established. On November 14 of 1989, the united session of the city and district councils of people's deputies of Kalinin adopted a resolution on return of the historic name to Tver. On July 27, the council of people's deputies of Kalinin Region adopted resolution "On restoration of the name of the City of Tver and relevant renaming of Kalinin Region into Tver Region." On July 17 of 1990, Chair of the Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic B. N. Yeltsin signed two decrees of the presidium of the Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic: "On renaming of the city of Kalinin into the city of Tver" and "On renaming of Kalinin Region into Tver Region." A solemn veche (people's assembly) took place in Tver on July 29 of 1990. This was a holiday dedicated to return of the original name to the city. The coat of arms of Tver approved by Empress Catherine II in 1780 was officially restored on November 16 of 1990.